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​The water sector includes water supply to populations in both rural and urban areas as well as to economic activities. This sector also comprises urban wastewater drainage and treatment.

The waste sector comprises the collection, treatment and disposal of municipal waste.
Both are considered services of general interest, essential to the well-being of citizens, to public health, to economic activities and to environment protection.

The water and waste sector should obey a set of principles that comprehend universal access, a continuous and high standards of the quality of service and price efficiency and equity.
These services are provided by around 500 operators, State or municipal owned.

Water and waste services are classified as bulk services or retail services according to the performed activities. Bulk service is related to the wholesale activity of public water supply, urban wastewater management and urban waste management, whereas the retail services focus only on the interaction with the end-user.

The strategic guidelines for the water and waste sector are set in PENSAAR (Strategic Plan for Water Supply and Sewerage Services), for the 2014-2020 period, and in PERSU 2020 (Strategic Plan for Urban Waste Management Services), for the 2014-2020 period.